ABSTRACT: In this work, we demonstrated a phonon-polariton in the terahertz (THz) frequency range, generated in a crystallized lead halide perovskite film coated on metamaterials. When the metamaterial resonance was in tune with the phonon resonance of the perovskite film, Rabi splitting occurred due to the strong coupling between the resonances. The Rabi splitting energy was about 1.1 meV, which is larger than the metamaterial and phonon resonance line widths; the interaction potential estimation confirmed that the strong coupling regime was reached successfully. We were able to tune the polaritonic branches by varying the metamaterial resonance, thereby obtaining the dispersion curve with a clear anticrossing behavior. Additionally, we performed in situ THz spectroscopy as we annealed the perovskite film and studied the Rabi splitting as a function of the films’ crystallization coverage. The Rabi splitting versus crystallization volume fraction exhibited a unique power-law scaling, depending on the crystal growth dimensions.
<3> Copper-based etalon filter using antioxidant graphene layer
Kiin Nam, Youjin Lee, SeongYeon Kim, Sunghwan Kim, Sung Ju Hong, Wonjong Choi, Jinhee Lee, Hyelin Kim, Dai-Sik Kim, JunHo Kim, Soobong Choi, Young-Mi Bahk
Nanotechnology 31, 445206 (2020).
ABSTRACT: Copper is a low-cost material compared to silver and gold, having high reflectivity in the near infrared spectral range as well as good electrical and thermal conductivity. Its properties make it a good candidate for metal-based low-cost multilayer thin-film devices and optical components. However, its high reflectance in the devices is reduced because copper is easily oxidized. Here, we suggest a copper-based Fabry–Perot optical filter consisting of a thin dielectric layer stacked between two copper films, which can realize low-cost production compared to a conventional silver-based etalon filter. The reduced performance due to the inherent oxidation of the copper surface can be overcome by passivating the copper films with monolayer graphene. The anti-oxidation of copper film is investigated by optical microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission measurement in UV–vi spectral ranges. Our results show that the graphene coating can be expanded for various metal-based optical devices in terms of anti-corrosion.
<2> Graphene-based crack lithography for high-throughput fabrication of terahertz metamaterials
Sejeong Won, Hyun-June Jung, Dasom Kim, Sang-Hun Lee, Do Van Lam, Hyeon-Don Kim, Kwang-Seop Kim, Seung-Mo Lee, Minah Seo, Dai-Sik Kim, Hak-Joo Lee, Jae-Hyun Kim
Carbon 158, 505 (2020).
Abstract: Terahertz (THz) nanoantennas have significant potential for versatile applications in THz spectroscopy because of their capability for strong electromagnetic field localization. Electron-beam lithography or focused ion beam machining is typically employed to fabricate nanoantenna structures. These nanolithography methods present limitations in the widespread utilization of THz nanoantennas because of their high cost and low productivity. In this work, we proposed graphene-based crack lithography as a high throughput fabrication method for nanoantenna structures. A double-layer graphene interface was introduced to enable independent control of the nanoantenna dimensions and provide graphene-based nanoantenna structures. We analyzed the underlying mechanism of graphene-based cracking and developed an analytical model governing the geometric parameters of the fabricated nanostructures. As a vital application of the fabricated nanoantenna structures, we demonstrated the highly sensitive detection of D-Glucose molecules. Graphene-based crack lithography can provide a cost-effective method for generating nanoantenna structures with the desired characteristics and can accelerate the development of practical applications of electromagnetic metamaterials.
ABSTRACT: Through the manipulation of metallic structures, light–matter interaction can enter into the realm of quantum mechanics. For example, intense terahertz pulses illuminating a metallic nanotip can promote terahertz field–driven electron tunneling to generate enormous electron emission currents in a subpicosecond time scale. By decreasing the dimension of the metallic structures down to the nanoscale and angstrom scale, one can obtain a strong field enhancement of the incoming terahertz field to achieve atomic field strength of the order of V/nm, driving electrons in the metal into tunneling regime by overcoming the potential barrier. Therefore, designing and optimizing the metal structure for high field enhancement are an essential step for studying the quantum phenomena with terahertz light. In this review, we present several types of metallic structures that can enhance the coupling of incoming terahertz pulses with the metals, leading to a strong modification of the potential barriers by the terahertz electric fields. Extreme nonlinear responses are expected, providing opportunities for the terahertz light for the strong light–matter interaction. Starting from a brief review about the terahertz field enhancement on the metallic structures, a few examples including metallic tips, dipole antenna, and metal nanogaps are introduced for boosting the quantum phenomena. The emerging techniques to control the electron tunneling driven by the terahertz pulse have a direct impact on the ultrafast science and on the realization of next-generation quantum devices.